Mathematical functions ABS Returns the absolute value of the argument. ACOS Returns the arc cosine of the argument.
ASIN Returns the arc sine of the argument. ATAN Returns the arc tangent of the argument. ATAN2 Returns the arc tangent of the two arguments. CEIL Rounds the argument up to the nearest whole number and returns the rounded value. COS Returns the cosine of the argument. COSH Returns the hyperbolic cosine of the argument. EXP Returns e to the power of the argument. LOG2 Returns the Base-2 logarithm of the argument. LOG10 Returns the Base logarithm of the argument. POW Returns first argument to the power of the second argument.
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RAND Returns a random float value in the range 0. SIN Returns the sine of the argument. SINH Returns the hyperbolic sine of the argument. SQRT Returns the square root of the expression. TAN Returns the tangent of the argument. TANH Returns the hyperbolic tangent of the argument. LEFT Returns the leftmost characters of a string. LPAD Inserts characters to the left of a string. RPAD Inserts characters to the right side of a string.
LAG Enables you to read data from a previous row within a window. LEAD Enables you to read data from a following row within a window.
RANK Returns the integer rank of a value in a group of values. HASH Computes and returns a bit signed hash value IF If first argument is true, returns second argument; otherwise returns third argument. SOME Returns true if argument is true for at least one of its inputs. Query syntax Note: Keywords are not case-sensitive. Example This example performs a scoped COUNT aggregation and then filters and sorts the records by the aggregated value.
Examples This example references a column with no table prefix. Table wildcard functions The term table wildcard function refers to a special type of function unique to BigQuery. Examples The following query uses a semi-join to find ngrams where the first word in the ngram is also the second word in another ngram that has "AND" as the third word in the ngram. The subquery can not reference any fields from the outer query. The subquery used in a semi- or anti-semi-join must select exactly one field. The types of the selected field and the field being used from the outer query in the WHERE clause must match exactly.
BigQuery will not do any type coercion for semi- or anti-semi-joins. Example This query finds the top ten most common first words in the trigrams sample data set. Example This query generates per-year counts of male and female births from the sample natality dataset. Because the system is interactive, queries that produce a large number of groups might fail. Example This query computes the most common first words in the ngram sample dataset that contain the letter a and occur at most 10, times.
A query with a LIMIT clause may still be non-deterministic if there is no operator in the query that guarantees the ordering of the output result set. This is because BigQuery executes using a large number of parallel workers. The order in which parallel jobs return is not guaranteed. The vertical bar " " indicates a logical OR. A comma or keyword followed by an ellipsis within square brackets "[, Parentheses " " indicate literal parentheses.
Aggregate functions Aggregate functions return values that represent summaries of larger sets of data, which makes these functions particularly useful for analyzing logs. An aggregate function operates against a collection of values and returns a single value per table, group, or scope: Table aggregation Uses an aggregate function to summarize all qualifying rows in the table.
Scoped aggregation This feature applies only to tables that have nested fields. Rows with a NULL value are not included in the calculation. NULL values are ignored. MAX field Returns the maximum value in the scope of the function. MIN field Returns the minimum value in the scope of the function. NEST expr Aggregates all values in the current aggregation scope into a repeated field. NTH n , field Returns the n th sequential value in the scope of the function, where n is a constant.
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The NTH function starts counting at 1, so there is no zeroth term. If the scope of the function has less than n values, the function returns NULL. For more information about population versus sample standard deviation, see Standard deviation on Wikipedia.
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SUM field Returns the sum total of the values in the scope of the function. For use with numerical data types only. See the TOP description below for details. Default is LIMIT The query returns, in order, the top 10 most frequently used words containing "th", and the number of documents the words was used in. Advanced examples Average and standard deviation grouped by condition The following query returns the average and standard deviation of birth weights in Ohio in , grouped by mothers who do and do not smoke.
The expr can be a string like ' Returns NULL if expr is a string that doesn't correspond to an integer value. Returns the number of microseconds since the unix epoch if expr is a timestamp.
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Comparison functions Comparison functions return true or false , based on the following types of comparisons: A comparison of two expressions. A comparison of an expression or set of expressions to a specific criteria, such as being in a specified list, being NULL, or being a non-default optional value. Returns true if expr matches expr1 , expr2 , or any value in the parentheses.
The expressions used with the IN keyword must be constants and they must match the data type of expr. The IN clause can also be used to create semi-joins and anti-joins. For more information, see Semi-join and Anti-join. Returns the first argument that isn't NULL.
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Logical operators Logical operators perform binary or ternary logic on expressions. Returns false if one or both of the expressions are false.