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Recent changes in demographic trends in Canada

This policy proved deeply divisive, and quickly lost its importance as oil prices collapsed in the mids. One of the most controversial sections of the Canada—United States Free Trade Agreement of was a promise that Canada would never charge the United States more for energy than fellow Canadians. Canada is also one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products, particularly of wheat and other grains. As with all other developed nations the proportion of the population and GDP devoted to agriculture fell dramatically over the 20th century.

As with other developed nations, the Canadian agriculture industry receives significant government subsidies and supports. However, Canada has been a strong supporter of reducing market influencing subsidies through the World Trade Organization.

Canada and the United States share a common trading relationship. Canada's job market continues to perform well along with the US, reaching a year low in the unemployment rate in December , following 14 consecutive years of employment growth. Canada's importance to the United States is not just a border-state phenomenon: Canada is the leading export market for 35 of 50 U.

It also resolves some long-standing bilateral irritants and liberalizes rules in several areas, including agriculture, services, energy, financial services, investment, and government procurement.

Recent changes in demographic trends in Canada

NAFTA forms the largest trading area in the world, embracing the million people of the three North American countries. The largest component of U. The U. The primary components of U. Canada is the United States' largest oil supplier and the fifth-largest energy producing country in the world. The United States and Canada's national electricity grids are linked, and both countries share hydropower facilities on the western borders.

While most of U. The United States and Canada also have resolved several major issues involving fisheries. By common agreement, the two countries submitted a Gulf of Maine boundary dispute to the International Court of Justice in ; both accepted the court's 12 October ruling which demarcated the territorial sea boundary. A current issue between the United States and Canada is the ongoing softwood lumber dispute , as the U.

In , the United States and Canada signed a bilateral Fisheries Enforcement Agreement, which has served to deter illegal fishing activity and reduce the risk of injury during fisheries enforcement incidents. Canada and the United States signed an aviation agreement during Bill Clinton 's visit to Canada in February , and air traffic between the two countries has increased dramatically as a result. The two countries also share in operation of the St. In , the stock of U. S for [] US investments are primarily directed at Canada's mining and smelting industries, petroleum, chemicals, the manufacture of machinery and transportation equipment, and finance, while Canadian investment in the United States is concentrated in manufacturing, wholesale trade, real estate, petroleum, finance, and insurance and other services.

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In Canada's was The CIA World Factbook, updated weekly, measures financial liabilities by using gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt used by the OECD and the Canadian federal government. Gross general government debt includes both "intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level". For example, the CIA measured Canada's public debt as Household debt , the amount of money that all adults in the household owe financial institutions, includes consumer debt and mortgage loans.

In March the International Monetary Fund reported that Canada's high household debt was one of two vulnerable domestic areas in Canada's economy; the second is its overheated housing market. According to Philip Cross of the Fraser Institute , in May , while the Canadian household debt-to-income ratio is similar to that in the US, however lending standards in Canada are tighter than those in the United States to protect against high-risk borrowers taking out unsustainable debt.

Since 63, deals in- and outbound Canada have been announced. Here is a list of the biggest deals in Canadian history: [].

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Economy of Canada Toronto , the financial centre of Canada. Fiscal year. Inflation CPI. Population below poverty line. Gini coefficient. Human Development Index. Transportation equipment chemicals minerals food products wood and paper fish products petroleum natural gas. Ease-of-doing-business rank. United States FDI stock. Current account. Gross external debt. Public debt. Budget balance. Credit rating. See also: List of the largest trading partners of Canada.

See also: Petroleum production in Canada. Main article: Agriculture in Canada. Main article: Free-trade agreements of Canada. Free-trade areas. Main article: Canada—United States trade relations. See also: List of largest companies of Canada. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved September 29, World Bank. Retrieved October 6, Retrieved October 15, Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved October 8, Retrieved September 18, United Nations Development Programme.


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Statistics Canada. Retrieved November 1, Retrieved November 24, Global Affairs Canada. World Trade Organization. Retrieved March 1, Archived from the original on April 12, Retrieved April 6, Retrieved September 23, Retrieved July 9, April 11, Retrieved September 25, Retrieved January 14, Moody's Investors Service. November 2, Retrieved February 25, Oxford University Press.

Archived from the original on November 3, Canadian Studies in the New Millennium. University of Toronto Press. Canada's Corruption at Home and Abroad.

April 17, Archived from the original on June 5, Retrieved May 23, Archived from the original on May 31, Retrieved May 22, Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved June 27, Less income inequality". National Post.

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December 13, A de novo entrant is a new firm producing in a market and is what comes to mind when thinking about entrepreneurial processes. In such cases, the firm did not produce in any other markets prior to its entry into the market of interest.

Many single-location births or new nonemployer firms fit into this category. However, another important source of entry into markets is existing firms diversifying into new markets Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson, These existing firms may enter a market by shifting existing assets from one industry to another or by creating a new production facility to service the market.

In these cases, the firm may be established, but it is a new participant in a specific market or sector. What is fundamental here is that, in order to fully measure entry, one must be able to identify not only de novo entrants new firms created for this market , but also the expansion of existing firms participating in a market new to that firm.

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Similarly, the exit of a producer from a market may correspond to the death of a firm, or it may simply represent a shift in the mix of production occurring at an ongoing firm. Under this definition, the closure of a plant or store may or may not represent exit from a market. These differences in the types of exit also should be distinguishable in data used to study producer dynamics. In order to measure de novo entrants, one needs reliable and timely information on new firm formation. This information typically comes from administrative sources, such as those underpinning the tax and UI systems.

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Identifying when existing producers diversify into new markets is in one way more complicated, as it requires longitudinal information on the distribution of economic activity e. These definitions of entry and exit require that the ownership of business units is tracked accurately, that industry and product coding is uniform, that the output is measured consistently and, sometimes, that the location of business units is tracked. Regarding the ownership issues, each business unit must be identified with the firm that owns it at any given point in time, and changes in ownership must be accurately tracked.

Ownership and administrative changes that do not affect the business operation but do change the legal entity must not be mistakenly picked up as an exit of an existing firm and the entry of a new firm. Vale found that an important difference affecting the international comparability of business start-up statistics internationally relates to how countries treat administrative and ownership.

Reactivations and reregistrations of businesses can result in substantial overestimation of business start-ups. Baldwin, Beckstead, and Girard report that business start-up rates are substantially overestimated, both in numbers and employment shares, when one relies simply on tracking firms in a business register. Many new startups are, in fact, unlinked acquisitions. However, ownership changes that affect the number of competitors in a market need to be reflected in the data. A horizontal merger between two competitors results in a reduction in the number of independent business units in the market and thus represents a form of exit but not deactivation of a production unit.

Detailed information on business location may also be vital, depending on the industry or issue under study. Clearly, in such industries as retail and construction—and sometimes even in manufacturing—products markets are local in nature. In order to characterize the entry and exit of firms into these typically narrow geographic markets, detailed information on the location of operations is required.

Alternatively, for some industries, such as consulting and perhaps information technology services, the location of the business unit may be effectively undefined. On balance, however, it is probably useful to think of business location as an important characteristic for helping to link business units to specific markets.