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Trompeo, Nell' Italia romantica sulle orme di Stendhal, Roma, , p.

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Since a quack surgeon may be dubbed in French a charcutier, and in Italian a norcino Shelley, who had before him in this particular a text like Stendhal's, was a shade lei. Naturally if her head had been shaved, she had no curls to grace her on the way to tb: execution. In the version of t82i she had only been threatened with being ah. It will be noticed above that Malartic's version is historically accurate in making Beatrice twenty-two years old when she died.

Shelley makes her twenty. But Stendhal's version is not the only one that says she was sixteen. The question has even been raised whether this Paris relazione was the work of Stendhal and from outside evidence rather hesitatingly decided in the negative. The older daughter, for example, who is nameless in Stendhal, is called in the version Olimpia and is represented also as a victim of her father's vice. The above details are sufficient to show that Stendhal owed nothing to Malartic and that it was not Shelley's version that he had.

The fate of these manuscripts of the story furnishes a lesson to editors of old French texts which have come down to us in more than one form. This fact granted, much of the criticism of his Cenci is wide of the mark. This seems to be the case likewise with M. Doyon when he raises the question of Stendhal's indebtedness to Malartic, or of the critical sense or power of affabulation which Stendhal shows in the Cenci. To be sure he must be credited with not tampering with his old story as some of his successors have done. Pale, with her lovely fair hair, and dressed in white, she looked like an angel, a sad but beautiful angel.

She ascehded the scaffold, firmiy knelt down and with eyes turned heavenward cried out: 'My God, 1 die innocent. While the classical Latin prototypes of the 2d plu. Of these five tenses having proparoxytonic forms, the cond. In the other eight tenses the d became silent. At a much earlier period in the history of the language, an i in hiatus with a preceding o changed the a to This is exemplified in the ist sing. With the d silent, one might expect the same development in the 2d plu. But, although the activity of this phenomenon probably extended over several centuries,7 it had by the time oropped lost much of its force.

Accented c plus remained unchanged. In the 2d plu. Thus a form developed which is the same as the perf. It was probably to avoid this ambiguity that the simplification of the consonant group and the resultant syncope did not take place in Portuguese. This d is still retained in many Portuguese dialects; hence many such forms in Gil Vicente; cf.

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Leite de Vasconcellos, Z. In these forms in Spanish, unaccented a remained unchanged because in the proparoxytonic forms d dropped much later than in the paroxytonic forms, and in aM forms much later than in Portuguese; cf. Furthermore, uaaccented a probably never became so obscure and therefore, so unstable as in Portuguese; compare Sp. For example, in a document 1 of the early fifteenth century containing both forms with d and forms without d, we find the following examples of the tenses in question:.

Old and new forms stand side by side, the words of the same speaker, as auiades, percebiees, erees, and amarades, derees. But the intermediate stage is missing.

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There can be only one explanation for this, namely, that d became silent long before it dropped in speUing, and that scribes became conscious of the diserepancy between pronunciation and orthography with regard to both phenomena i. It is therefore quite likely that the writer of the old forms, quoted above, pronounced them wholly in the new way.

In tendes, vindes, pondes pres. Ledes, lede developed by analogy with credes, crede, while the retention of d in ides, ide preserved their very identity. Mendes dos Remedios, Coimbra, vol. As the chronicler was probably an intimate of the hero, and as all of our examples are taken from quotations, it is likely that he actually heard the words he reports. At times he remembered their very forms t. He supports ais contention by the identification of quoted passages and the observation that in ofHciai royal documents reign i.

He further famines two documents from southem Portugal dated and and a document of Evora dated From this evidence Leite concludes that the critical period during which the change took place was the first quarter of the fifteenth century. Additional forms have been collected and are arranged below in chronological order. AH III 24! AH X f4. DC 1 gis ] fazernosedes, creades, sabedes, des-.

Aubrey F. Bell, Studies in Portuguese Z. The vagueness of the date of the Livro de Esopo is indicated by the fact that Leite believes it to be a leitura nova, i. But this document cannot be considered of a ny value in the present discussion because it is based on a copy of , the language cf which is marbed by numerous characteristies of seventeenth century Spanish. AH III l4gi tomees, conssentaaes, etc. Castro refers thees words and Galician "colmena" to columella.

The Galician form is colmea. Doubl consonants were not commonly subject to disimilativ changes in erly Romanic.

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  • Evidently the asociacion ov -cula with the same suffix, in countless other words, kept it from undergoing a special change in eny singl word. And the same thing wood be tru ov -ella, an extreemly common suffix. There is no reazon why disimilacion ov M shood produce a simpl n instead ov nn. The entire theory is founded on wrong asumpcions. The passage, w ell-known through Bartsch' Chrestomathie,2 is a lengthy praise of the bliss and happiness of the Golden Age of mankind.

    Wiese, , p. Still, Ovid's panegyric lacked one important feature of Jean de Meung's enthusiasm,-the praise of love in olden times. It would be too hasty a conclusion to infer from the omission that Ovid was perfectiy satisfied with the woman of his day. Jean de Meung's Ami is led to eulogize primitive mankind by deploring the cupidity of "modem" woman.

    After a series of Ovidian reminiscences, he continues:. A fruit fresh picked, a basketful of berries, a bouquet were welcome gifts in those times; the scenery of this bucolic love is almost literally paraphrased by Jean de Meung:. It is characteristic of the two epochs that whereas Jean de Meung goes on to a general consideration of the consequences that resulted from the passing of pastoral beatitude and uses the opportunity to write a virulent diatribe against kings and princes and private property, the Roman poet deplores in patriotie despair the state of his fatherland and predicts the downfall of Rome.

    In view of the dearth of Propertian manuscripts before Humanisme" Jean de Meung's paraphrase ought to be of interest to students of Classical Philology also. Teil, I.

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    • While the passage in question depicts the lovers as not caring for gifts or presents senz rapine et sens couvoitise , Marot is specifie, and instead of a negative, he says:. A bouquet of flowers was one of the modest gifts by which Propertius' innocent lover courted his sweetheart:. It is a known fact that Marot read Propertius, and thus, it is probable that he found his model rather in the elegy of Propertius than in the Roman de la Rose.

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